Eleventh and twelfth century documentation of surgical goiter cosmesis: a review of contributing literature

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Jacob Wihlidal
Shelley McKellar



Gotire’s—abnormal swellings of the thyroid gland at the base of the neck—have been regarded through time as cosmetically displeasing, resulting a large number of proposed treatment ideologies originating from many regions across the globe. However, with threats to surgical practice such as conflicting Catholic ideology and increasing risk, early documentation of techniques and methods of surgical thyroid practice were critical in developing thyroid surgery as we know it today. The current project uses analysis of Albucasis’ Kitab al-Tasrif and Frugardii’s Practica Chiurgiae to prove eleventh and twelfth century documentation of goitre cosmesis assisted the development of modern era thyroid surgery.