Main Article Content
Microbiota, Microbiome, Probiotic, Prebiotic, Intestinal Epithelial Barrier
The human intestine harbours a complex community of microorganisms, known as the gut microbiota. Significant progress in microbiota research has not only provided knowledge into its compositions and abundance, but has also elucidated its crucial functions and potential applications to human health and disease. This review will summarize the key understandings of the gut microbiota to date, with particular emphases on gut microbiota development and the mechanisms for interactions with the host immune system and intestinal epithelium. Finally, it will explore the potential microbiota therapies currently being researched, and discuss some of the challenges of translating the evidence from basic science to human trials.