The Impact of Obesity and Lifestyle-related Risk Indicators in Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Review

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Harry Dang
Mirian Man-Hin Dang


Eye disease, Open-angle glaucoma, Glaucoma status, Obesity, Lifestyle-related risk factors, Intraocular pressure, Body mass index


Open-angle glaucoma (OAG) is a chronic eye disease characterized by visual field loss and progressive optic neuropathy. To date, several risk factors for OAG have been identified including sex, age, ethnicity, myopia, and intraocular pressure (IOP). While IOP is the only risk factor that is modifiable, emerging studies have indicated that other modifiable risk indicators besides IOP may have an influence on glaucoma status. In this review, we discuss risk indicators including obesity, body mass index, diet, smoking, and exercise that can potentially be involved in OAG. Although preliminary studies have indicated that associations may exist between OAG and these non-inherent factors, the strength and nature of these relationships remains unclear. The mechanisms of influence have not been investigated extensively and additional research is needed to incorporate behavioural factors that may impact the presence of glaucoma. Due to the potential public health impact of obesity and other lifestyle-related risk indicators, there is a need to understand these associations in greater detail.